This Week's Product Spotlight: "Diabetes And Alzheimer's Disease Related Products"

Our featured items here are in concert with this week’s PepTalk on the interesting new research looking at possible connections between Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes.

The first grouping is Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-IV) Inhibitors and related offerings.  DPPIV is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein and a serine exopeptidase that cleaves X-proline dipeptides from the N-terminus of polypeptides. DPP4 plays a role in t-cell activation and is associated with intracellular signal transduction, apoptosis and involved in tumor biology. DPP4 plays a major role in glucose metabolism by cleaving incretins such as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).

  • Human-Dipeptidyl-Peptidase-IV

  • Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Human Recombinant
  • Gly-Pro-MCA
    (M.W. 329.35) C17H19N3O4     [67341-42-8]
    Substrate for X-prolyl Dipeptidyl-Aminopeptidase IV (DPP-IV)
  • Gly-Pro-pNA • Tos [GPNT]
    (M.W 292.29 • 172.20)  C13H16N4O4 • C7H8O3S     [65096-46-0]
    Substrate for X-prolyl Dipeptidyl-Aminopeptidase IV (DPP-IV)

The second main group featured are those incretins mentioned above, GLP-1 agonists.

The native hormone of Exendin-4 (Exenatide) is produced in the gut of Gila monster Heloderma suspectrum (a reptile found in the desert) that stimulates insulin production without causing threateningly low blood sugar, which can occur after using insulin and some anti-diabetes products.

  • Exendin-4 (synthetic)
    (M.W. 4186.66) C184H282N50O60S     [141758-74-9]
    GLP-1 (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1) Receptor Agonist

  • Exenatide (recombinant)

We recently featured Liraglutide in another PepTalk on fibril formation comparing it to GLP-1. Liraglutide is an acylated variant of human GLP-1 (7-37). The selective fatty acylation of the peptide increases the half-life to 11-15 hours following a subcutaneous injection allowing for once daily injection. This peptide drug has been widely used to treat type II diabetes.

  • Liraglutide
    (M.W. 3751.29) Formula: C17H265N43O51     [204656-20-2]
    Glucagon-Like-Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Receptor Agonist

Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue and a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Not only does it have a half-life of up to one week, it has been used in type 2 diabetes research for its ability to stimulate insulin production while suppressing glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. Semaglutide has an increased albumin affinity and exhibits a three-fold decrease in GLP-1 receptor affinity when compared to liraglutide.1 Recent studies in patients with type 2 diabetes suggest that semaglutide may also have an improved cardiovascular outcome in those patients who are at risk for a cardiac event.2      

  • Semaglutide
    (M.W. 4113.67) C187H291N45O59     [910463-68-2]
    Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Analog Shown to Stimulate Insulin and Suppress Glucagon Secretion in a Glucose-Dependent Manner
  1. J. Lau, et al., J. Med. Chem., 58, 7370 (2015). Retrieved from
  2. S.P. Marso, et al., N. Engl. J. Med., 375, 1834 (2016). Retrieved from

Originally discovered by Zealand Pharma, Lixisenatide was licensed and developed by Sanofi for its use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 is a naturally occurring peptide, released shortly after a meal has been consumed.

  • Lixisenatide
    (M.W. 4858.60 C215H347N61O65S     [320367-13-3]
    Potent and Highly Selective Once-Daily GLP-1 Peptide Agonist

Of course, this list is just a smattering of the many related items we have available.  For more DPP-4 or GLP-1 products, please search our website, and if you want a custom peptide synthesis, request a quote here.