Rare Disease Journal – Kawasaki Disease

In this PepTalk, we are visiting another “Rare Disease”.  Such diseases have an incidence rate affecting less than 200,000 people as established by the Congress of the United States with the Orphan Drug Act of 1983.1  Legislation created the definition, and also instrumental in changing the entire discussion and economy around orphan drug research in the US.  In the ten years prior to its implementation, less than ten treatments were approved. Since1983, the Office of Orphan Products Development (OOPD incentivizes research on what were previously untenable developmental costs, bringing more than 400 new treatments to market.1

According to the NIH there are as many as 7,000 rare diseases. The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) studies found commonalities among populations and diseases through collaborative studies.1 From those, the following programs for rare diseases have been made available:

Of course, the designations and prevalence of rare, and in fact, all diseases may change over time.

 Reference

  1. https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/pages/31/faqs-about-rare-diseases

Kawasaki Disease

Originally described by Japanese pediatrician Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki in 1967,1 the eponymously named disease, also known as Kawasaki Syndrome, is making headlines worldwide with similar features present in some children that were asymptomatic or displayed only mild COVID-19 symptoms.  Within nine years of Kawasaki’s recognition, it was then identified in the United States, in Hawaii.2  It is a febrile illness, usually found in children under five, and along with fevers, other manifestations are: rashes, swelling of the hands and feet, irritation and redness of the whites of the eyes, swollen lymph glands in the neck (lymphadenopathy), and irritation and inflammation of the mouth, lips, and throat (stomatitis).3

The incidence rate is believed to be somewhere between nine and nineteen cases per 100,000 each year in the continental US.3   Since reporting of KD is generally by passive surveillance,4 exact numbers, as in most of these situations, are difficult to assess.  With that in mind, in 2000, approximately 4248 hospitalizations with KD were reported among children under 18 in the US, of which 3277 (77%) were for children under 5 years of age.3

Since the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and these occurrences of KD are so recent, obviously there is much more to learn in regards to each individually and its causation of the latter.

For more facts and support on KD generally, along with information in relation to COVID-19, please check out the resources.   Related products, news, and more information can be found at the New England Peptide | Peptides International COVID-19 Information Station.  For an investigation of the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic is having on rare disease research, please see the article here.

 

References

  1. T. Kawasaki, F. Kosaki, S. Okawa S, Shigematsu, H. Yanagawa, A New Infantile Acute Febrile Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome (MLNS) Prevailing in Japan; Pediatrics, 54(3), 271 (1974).
  2. M.E. Melish, R.M. Hicks, E.J. Larson, Am J Dis Child, 130, 599 (1976).
  3. https://www.cdc.gov/kawasaki/about.html and https://www.cdc.gov/kawasaki/index.html
  4. https://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/burden/vpd/surveillance_type/passive/en/

Resources

Custom Peptide Synthesis , Industry News , Biologically Active Peptides , Recombinant Proteins , Cellular , Infectious Diseases , Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Robert Brousseau

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Robert Brousseau, the Director of Creative Design and Media at Peptides International, has a wide range of responsibilities that include maintaining the Peptides International brand integrity and creating and implementing all materials related to marketing the company's product line. Since joining the company in 2004, he has incorporated media that now includes printed material such as product brochures and the long-running PEPNET newsletter, along with the company Website, social media, email and other outlets.  Additionally, he assists the staff with IT issues they encounter.  Bob has a background in graphic design, marketing, and advertising, in addition to project management and packaging.  He received his B.A. in Art from the University of Louisville, with additional post-graduate studies in education and design.