Peptides, Antibodies, and Antigens
While both antigens and antibodies originate from leukocytes, the latter are lymphocytes in B-cells that are “Y” shaped proteins. Their affinity to, and binding sites for, antigens, are found at the top two sites of the “Y”. They attach to antigens and then agglutinate, (isoagglutinin) and this form is commonly utilized in identifying bacterial antigens, and in turn, the identity of such bacteria. Antigens as mentioned, are typically peptides, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, or polysaccharides, and are able to generate an immune response.1This immune response is an antibody. In cancer, tumor antigens are expressed and can be useful biomarkers for diagnostics and immunotherapies.2
Previously, we shared an informative, searchable toxins database, the Kalium Database of Polypeptide Ligands of Potassium Channels, and now here is an interesting cancer database: the Cancer Antigenic Peptide Database,2 out of the de Duve Institute. The searchable tables are a result of the institute’s compilation of human tumor antigens.
For a perspective on antibody therapeutics approved in 2019 and in regulatory review in the United States or European Union, as well as those in late-stage clinical studies, we refer you to the, “Antibodies to Watch in 2020,” current as of November 28, 2019.3 This annual series indicates that presently there are five entries under review from the past year.
With that, please note that as a core competency, both New England Peptide and Peptides International can custom synthesize a peptide antigen to meet your specifications. New England Peptide can also efficiently, economically, and seamlessly produce your custom monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies from inception to scale-up production, with in-house antigen design expertise.