Estrogens and Type 2 Diabetes

Figure: Estrogen ester

There is an interesting connection between sex hormones and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since women have increased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses to glucose than comparably aged men, there appears to be a correlation between sex hormones and GLP-1 release. The impact of estrogens on proglucagon-producing cells is evaluated in a new publication, JCI Insight, led by Sandra Handgraaf of the University of Geneva Medical School. A reduction in the incidence of T2D in postmenopausal women has been previously noted when estrogen replacement therapies have been used. Subsequently, Handgraaf and her team tested the response to 17-β estradiol (E2) treatment in ovariectomized (ovx) mice and discovered that E2 replacement in fact increased GLP-1 from pancreatic cells and induced GLP-1 secretion, while hormonal deprivation led to a change in glucose tolerance. They also found that an ERβ agonist, WAY200070, was able to stimulate GLP-1 secretion and restore glucose tolerance in the ovx mice by activating the ERβ pathway. The results were also seen in human alpha cells, in vitro.1­


  1. S. Handgraaf et al., JCI Insights, 3(7), 1 (2018).
Industry News , Biologically Active Peptides , Diabetes

Denise Karounos

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Denise Karounos joined Peptides International in October 2016. After completing her BS in chemistry from West Virginia University, she spent time as an organic chemist at Bachem Bioscience synthesizing peptides and amino acid derivatives. Denise has experience with both solid and solution-phase peptide synthesis, and has worked under both research and cGMP settings. After completing her MBA from Saint Joseph’s University, Denise transitioned into product management of peptides and amino acid derivatives. In her marketing role, she had many duties including but not limited to product management, market research, creating and producing marketing materials, handling US catalog distribution and customer database, email marketing, quoting and inside sales, sales calls, and coordinating and attending trade conferences. 

At PI, Denise's duties encompass both sales and marketing, bringing to bear her extensive lab and sales support experience. Contact her today and see how Denise can assist you with your peptide research project.